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o/^ superb native hardwood 
jor interior iimJuvrMunutiire 



/t GRACEi ULLV propovtionul door, 
^^ -*- tntcnor pane hug und woodwork 
of Awencau Cumwood, and good furn/- 
turt in which this dependahle cabtiict 
wood is used, contribute to the chann of 
a wdl appointed home. 

GuMwooD Service Bureal 

H • vn\vooD Manufacturers' In i ; j i j j 

.Mf/;; Pl is . Tenueisce 

<1^?^3 . 


zAu yb/zei'icafi wood that attracts. A/// f/erer t/rcs the eye. 

Tht Ail 

one of our most ornamental 
forest products 

shine this fine wood 
by the hand of man 
into products that 
contribute to his well 
being and enjoyment. 

The tree itself, as it 
displays its lofty and 
graceful symmetry, is 
one of the glories of 
our native forests. Its 
sturdy proportions 
are enhanced b\' 
masses of scarlet, 
orange, and yellow 
leaves, which change, 
as the sum.mer wanes. 

/"^HE story of American gum wood 
X dates back man\- centuries. \a- 
ture requires many years oi favor- 
able growth to produce a masterpiece, 
and in the vast stretches of our south- 
land forests, extending from the At- 
lantic to the Mississippi vallev and be- 
yond, the quiet work of building cell 
and fibre was going on long before 
DeSoto and his valiant men first beheld 
in wonder the mighty "Father of Wa- 
ters." What a marvel of creation, 
when from soil, moisture, and sun- 
came into being, now to be transformed 

Dignity and harmony in Gumivood paneling 

ro rhc bronze and purple tones characteristic of the ash. In 
size, it is heroic; one hundred feet to one hundred fifty feet in 
height, with a diameter of four or five feet, is not unusual. 
And some idea of the extent of growth of this important tree 
may be gained from the fact that with the exception of the 
oaks, gumwood exceeds all other hardwoods. 

Long TriT^d Abroad 

T UMBERMEN have long known gumwood, yet vast tracts 
-*— 'have been left standing while other interspersed hardwoods 
of widely varying species which happened to be wanted at the 
time, have been cut out. To the public, too, it is not a stranger; 
its wood has perhaps a greater variety of use, touching business 
and the home, than 
any other native for- 
est product. Yet 
under the name 
"gumwood" it will 
possibly require an 
introd uct i on to 
most readers. It is 
M)incrimes called 
^um, because 
ul tlK- fragrant resin 
in the bark, known 
as "liquid ambar." 

This panel of quarter-sawn 
teneer, figured Gumiiood, 
matched for design, illus 
trates the exceptional deco 
rjtiie possibilities of this 
uonderful wood 

N OTE: GttmueoJ ,, mavuf.icrur, ' 
inle hoik ', ' 
ootfi qiiar ; 

"olsry cut. i-urthtr inj,. 
9fi apfltcatton. 


No icoodyieUs more unijorm and beautiful i\ snatched panelitig than figured Gunmood 

In foreign countries, where it has found favor for years, it has 
been termed hazel wood, and even satin-walnut, because in 
certain effects and finishes applied to it, it closelv resembles 
these deservedly popular woods. 

l>{pw -Appreciated at Home 

Europe has long recognized the exquisite beauty and texture of 
American gumwood. In fact, England, France, Italy, Spain, 
and other countries were first to recognize its fine working qual- 
ities. In America, however, its light was for a time hid under 
a bushel, so far as public acquaintance with its true worth is 
concerned. But now, due to growing appreciation of its merit, 
the valuable products of the gumwood tree stand forth proudly 
as "American gumwood,'* nothing else -so named, and so 
prized. The old adage, "a prophet is not without honor, save 
in his own countrv/* no longer applies, if wc mav ad]ust this 
metaphor to a tree. 

Quarter'sawn ^unnvood, ' Red Qum^ figured irooc/. h-tntshed natural. 

One of l^atures T{iddles 

TT/E ALL know the process called "quarter-sawing." It 
Vy produces in most woods a characteristic and highly 
prized pattern or figure, which lends a pleasing decorative effect 
to paneled walls and furniture surfaces. The striking individu- 
ality of quarter-sawed oak, for example, at once comes to mind. 
It will be interesting, just for a moment, to account for this 
effect. Consider the end of an oak log. The rings of growth, 
which determine the age of the tree, are familiar to everyone. 
But notice the light lines which radiate outwards from the 
center. These are medullary rays. Now when a board is sawn 
approximately at right angles to, or across these rays, bringing 
to the surface variations caused by the rings of growth, the 
resulting surface effect is known as ''plain" sawn. But saw the 
board so that the surface obtained is parallel to these medullary 
rays, cutting through them instead of across, and at once 
"flashes" or "flakes" appear, in a varied and beautiful pattern. 
This effect is known as "quarter" sawn. 

The unobtrusive ribbon effect of "plain' Gumwood paneling is a decorative triumph 
in this dignified library. See page in for variations of thn treatment. 

Plain-saivn American gumivood. Red Q inn t>lain uood. Stained 

Figured Gumu'ood in this gracefully proportioned door is in itself an important 
detail in decoration. It is a masterpiece y painted hy Nature. 

Now no wood has more wonderfully interesting patterns than 
figured gumwood, but it is one of Nature's riddles to account 
for them. The pattern is not produced in the usual manner by 
quarter-sawing, although this process will improve any figure 
if it is already there. All one can say is that some trees have 
pronounced figured wood, others varying degrees of pattern, 
and many which show but slight indications of it. Undoubt- 
edly the condition of the soil and the location of the individual 
tree affect in some mysterious way the structure of the wood. 
Only when the tree is felled, does the grain show itself as plain 
or figured. That is what makes the gumwood tree so interest- 
ing; it is like finding a }ewel, the value of which depends upon 
hidden qualities brought out by cutting and polishing. 

^/^^re Opportuuit] for "Uarnty 

The figure ramifies through the wood at random, obeying vl^ 
known laws. Gumwood logs will each displa\' differing pat- 
terns, some subdued, some intricate and ornate. The more fan- 
tastic patterns, if used conservatively, provide a much prized 

Plain-satin gumu'ood. Red Qiim i figured tvood, Satiiral finish. 

Keco>?n?n)hUJ for inttrior iioodwork ni It jJni e 
apartment houses and hotels. 

decorative detail for 
paneling. Most of the 
product of the gum wood 
tree is, however, classed 
as "plain" wood. The 
term "plain" whenever 
used in this booklet is a 
technical word, and sim- 
plv means that the wood is 
not highly ligured. It is 
not plain in the sense that 
it lacks decorative value. 
As a mattL-r of fact, all 

plain gumwood will show some of the characteristic markings 
of more hgurcd wood, and may he used to adorn large wall 
spaces without loss of dignity. A unique treatment is the com- 
bination of figured panels with plain wood surrounding them. 
For all general interior woodwork, plain gumwood finished 
natural is recommended because of its soft color qualities. 

An unusual panel dtsiiu made posstble by a uood delicate and restrained in grain 
and coloration. Both figured and plain uood may be combined to advantage. 

Quarter'Saun American gumnood, Red Qum ' plain uood. Stained. 

The pattern in Gumwood ts uniform throughout the 
large area that is at once unobtrusive and pleasing. 

which provide a rich quiet background for furniture and hang- 
ings. This plain wood may he either plain or quarter sawn, 
to meet individual taste. See plates on pages 7 and 11. It does 
not show finger marks, and is easilv kept in perfect condition. 

A sense of decorative unity is at once achieved h\- a room en- 
riched bv plain gumwood. Its natural coloration is a beautiful 
reddish brown, with a satin-like sheen, delicate and elusive 

log, %U 





lop making possible a continuous wall treatment in rooms of 
Ik'effect is heightened by the warm natural finish of the wood 

mejfect is i 
I in 

tone, and its appropriate use reflects dii^nitv and harmony. 
Coincident with the development of the "Better Homes" move- 
ment, has come a growing knowledge of the cultural value of 
pleasing room decoration.' It is a theme of great interest, and 
each year strengthens American gum wood, with its warmth oi 
color and ever appealing harmonv of tone, in the estimation ol 
people of taste. 


For a Hundred 

CrjyULT-]N househoJd con- 
t~y vcnicnces, in harmonv 
with the architectural 
treatment of the room, are one 
of the most delightful attributes 
of a modern home. Breakfast 
nooks, service accessories in din- 
ing room and pantry, kitchen 
compartments, shelving, and 
cabinets; window and hallwa\ 
seats, cozy corners in living 
room or library, sunporch fir 
tings, innumerable conveniences 
upstairs — all make the home 
more attractive and more indi- 
vidual. Here,'^beneath the con- 

hur IS entirely suitable wherever en.ifiicJ is to 
be supplied, ImJin^ the natural color of the 
wood . 

Gunnvt;cd takes a perfect hnish, its tcH struc- 
ture is so uniform that it docs not abst rb too 
much of any staining or enameling material, 
and there is no resin to come through and 
spoil tlic finish. 

cealing beauty of 
ivory or gray enamel, 
we find American 
gumwood. For this purpose 
the part of the tree known 
as sap gum is mostly used. 
This is the outer jwrtion in 
which growth occurs and 
which contains the live sap. 
The coloration is different 
from the reddish brown of 
the heart- wood, commer- 
cially known as red gum, 


Sa!> gum-enamel finish 

Nore the accurately matched figure in the columns of this hotel interi 

For cuAll l^uildhigs 

Cl yCODERN hotels, apartment houses, offices, and public buildings gen- 
f^yfl trrally, as well as homes, find in American gumwood an excellent 
^^ -*• material for interior woodwork, which includes paneling, doors, 
mouldings, and all kinds of cabinet work. 

Red gum, which is the commercial term for the heart-wood of the gumwood 
tree, is in great favor for these purposes, finished in its natural reddish brown 
tone. If, however, other color effects are desired, any of the stains such as 

the browns, reds, and gravs, may be em- 
ployed with entire success, to meet the in- 
dividual taste of the user. 

Sap gum is the commercial term for the sap 
wood of the gumwood tree. (It is permissi- 
ble in the sap gum grades 
that the boards contain 
a proportion of heart- 
wood.) We have already 
spoken of the advan- 
tages of sap gum wher- 
ever enamel, white, 
iN'ory, or gray, is to be 
• pphed. It will also ad- 
mit of any of the other 
desired stains. 


An office is the busi- 
ness '^ home' ' for many 
hours in the day, and 
what might be termed 
a "Better Office" move- 
ment has become as 
important as that of 
"Better Homes " 

We find, therefore, 
that the rather bizarre 
woodwork in business 
offices a decade or so ago , 
has been succeeded by 
quiet and rich tones in 
natural woods, among 
thetn our own native 
Gum wood. 

The Importance of "Proper Finishing 

/ILL woods arc improved bv finishing, and to obtain the 
nyrbest results the individual properties of each wood must 
be studied. Experts have worked out the following formulas, 
which will be of interest to users of American gumwood. 

NOTE-American Gumwood has a very close grain and may be hn.shcd without 
the use of a rtller, but we recommend that after the wood has been sandpapered 
perfectly smooth, that it be filled with either paraffin or pure boiled linseed oil. 
This will develop a beautiful rich color tone not otherwise obtainable. 

T^atHval ami Stained Finish 

First sandpaper the wood perfectly smooth 
(this IS essential in any wood in order to 
obtain a good finish), then apply oil. 
After the oil has been thoroughly absorbed, 
smooth with fine sandpaper or steel wool 
and then applv two or three coats of pure 
white shellac' smoothing each coat when 
drv. Then applv two or three coats ot high 
grade varnish, rubbing down with steel wool 
iDetween each coat. ^The final coat should 
stand eight days, after which it should be 
rubbed with water and pumice stone hrst 
and the next dav with rubbing oil and pum- 


ice. If a stain is desired, the same 
process should be foJIowed, except 
that a lighter coat of oil may be 
used, and that the finisher then stain 
the wood the desired color. 

JVax Finish 

First sandpaper the wood pcrfectlv 
smooth, apply a coat of oil as above, 
then apply two coats of pure white 
shellac, rubbing down each coat with 
steel wool when dry, then polish 
with prepared wax. This will pro- 
duce a rich color tone and a satin 
like finish, which is very attractive. 

, ... office build- 
ings pnd in American Gumivood 
an ideal finishing wood 

Enamel Finish 


icncan gumwood has superior 
qualities for taking and retaining 
white enameJ Imish. See pages 14 and ly First apply three- 
coats of Hat white or anv standard enamel undercoater, then 
apply two or more coats of any good enamel. Time should 
be allowed between each coat for the paint to become thor- 
oughly dry. Each coat should be smoothed with fme sand- 
paper, excepting 
the last coat, 
w h i c h m a y be 
rubbed with pum- 
ice stone and 
water to produce 
a dull imish. Spe- 
cial formulas are 
used for enamel 
imish on furniture 
and pianos, and 
this finish on gum - 
wood is equal to 
polished ivorw 


For all gtmral interior iVAioduork, "plain" (.umuood, 
finiihcd natural, is rtcommended 

^ good Wood for Qood Furniture 

WE HAVE spoken of the appropriateness of gumwood for paneling 
and interior woodwork of all kinds, m which its beautv hnds full 
expression. Now, American gumwood has another appeal m the 
modern home. It is a wood of the highest value in the making of good 

furniture. No better furniture as 
regards appearance and durability 
can be made than that in which 
gumwood has been generously 
and suitably used. 

Furniture of character is the secret 
of tasteful appearance and livable- 
ness iri our homes— correctlv pro- 
portioned, of good wood, of good 
design and construction, carefully 
chosen to suit the room and its 
furnishings. It is not a question 
of cost, as reasonably priced arti- 
cles, if properly designed and 
made, arc objects of real beautv 
anil lasting value. They are an 
^ ! , r irk.r,n.n.,d investment in good taste. 


All bur the inlaid top is 
Gum wood 

The legs and cross pieces 

of this gate-leg table are 


<A Heritage fmn the Tast 

From earliest times to the present, furniture making 
has been an art, practiced by master craftsmen who 
have studied the models of 
the past, and have trans- 
formed objects of utility 
under the inspiration of 
their genius. Such men as 
Adam, Chippendale, Hep- 
plewhite, Sheraton, and in 
our own Colonial days, 
Duncan Phyfe, were "archi- 
tects" of furniture. They 
took the best period motifs 
from times which had pre- 
ceded them, and created 

tvpes of their own. We of todax' profit by their craftsmanship, and in 
modern furniture we hnd the ideals of the past adapted to our own require- 

T>urable and Sound Const met ton Important 

This is a Jav of utilitx , and modern construction must employ the best cab- 
inet work. We require that good furniture should last, as well as look its 
part. American gumwood contributes largel)' to this important element of 
the manufacturers' art. Its working qualities are 
such as to make it highly suitable for use with 
other woods, for all solid parts such as legs, posts, 
stretchers, frames, and member supports of all 
kinds, as well as for designs calling for all gumwood. 
Leading manufacturers have adopted gumwood 
in the making of their most stylish suites, which 
utilize the most diversified woods, as will be seen 
by examining the splendid pieces shown on these 
pages. There is perfect harmony in effect, for 
gumwood takes a finish in conformity with other 
cabinet hardwoods with which it is used. In fact, 
no wood IS superior to gumwood for certain decorative details such as high- 
lightings in the popular two-toned antique effects. There is a warmth in 

the native hue of gumwood 
which seems to suffuse itself 
through any finish applied; the 
result is elusive, djjicate, and 
very beautiful. 

TvNSt tilt B Nil da- 

In the building of a home, dif- 
ferent woods arc used fo*" ">'srs. 

Gumwood legs and cross 

pieces support a richly inlaid 

top of selected hardwoods 





The jurniture pieces shown on these pages are excel- 
lent examples of the furniture makers' art in its 
highest form. In every case, legs, posts, cross- 
pieces, and solid structural parts are Gumwood, 
[unshed m harmony with other woods used. 

Caned base and all solid parts 
of American gumwood. 

It ts in high lighting effects 
on carved posts and cross 
members that Gumwood dis- 
plays one of Its fn"^t i^tlu- 
iible characteristh 

Frame^ legs, mirror sup- 
ports, and other structur- 
parts are examples 
of the accepted use of 
Gumwood in good fur- 
niture, in connection 
with other woods used 
for ornamental surfaces. 

Above atjd beloiv are further ex- 
amples of good furniture in which 
Gum wood plays a prominent 
part. The buffet at the' right 
fnakes use of the natural beauty 
of Gum wood for surfaces, as 
well as for other parts. It is 

Enanul fumitu m vague for breakfast 

room suites, bedroovi irYj, and sun porch furniture 
generally. Beautiful color combinations are pos- 
sible, enameled to a perfect finish, over the even 
fine grain of American Gum wood. 


/T^HE Guniuood Struct Eunau of the 
J- Hani wood Mauufdctiirers histi- 
tiite will he glad to supply to those in- 
terested further wformation on such 
technical matters as Kiln-Dry in g, the 
Care of Hardwood Doors and Trim^ 
Veneers, Grading Rules, and the mis- 
cellaneous uses of American Gum wood. 

Samples of plain and figured wood 
will be supplied on request. 

GuMwooD Service Bureau of the 

Hardwood Maxufacturers' Institute 

Aiemphis, Tennessee